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LESSONS IN 




PUBLISHED SV 

Zaner & Bloser Company 

COLUMBUS, OHiO 



THE Pt invwr. 



file object tif tin , lessons in tiriMiuentnl penmanship U to enable the student to study and practice in such n way that lie 
mat acquire in the shurtesi possihh. thm- uml in the best manner what is geiirrnlly termed h professional nr ornamental hand- 
writing, 'Hie purpose ,»f i riot ructions ami ilhMrai o U to disclose the means rather tha n the end of good writing imd to 

tram tilt* mind and the musi'le by giving exercise* tliat are pr< ig resslvcly graded. 

Pel I henries arc Dpi indulged in or rceoinmcnded; instead, tl»e Iratruetion given is <mch that experience has demonstrated 
to Ue tin? Ih'nt. and such n« U used by the holding penmen of Aujcrha, 

®* d^vdni>m«nt of the highest bratlt > <»n*ii**pt with a free and easy movement has Im-en (he aim. IH studying critically 
the forms presented, am] a^mlathig r I it- Instruction contained in tin- text, ii is possible for the hmne student to become «n 
B*$Brt penman. I *e good enmumu sense in interpreting and applying the in tru, Hon and you will he rewarded with Improve- 
ment f«r every carnal efforL expended. (Jf course yon must do your pari intelligently, enthusijisticallv nnd perservingly or the 
ii-Min- u ill fii i | to (hi thrirs. 

Vm must learn In develop and In use your own fiod-glvcn power* of common sense, for that i> tin mmd prncticul theory 
On earth. You mu.it leurn to use the muscles fmm the tipw of the lingers t» and including the shoulder for u.se at different times 
and in different hinds „f work. Keep in mind Ihe fact Hint it U a beautiful style of penmanship that is desired, and that am 
method h\ whieh it may he acquired ami ixceuted to the beat advantage is the one to adopt, Therefore, gel to work and work 
hard and intelligently nud success will crown your efforts 

lleforr going , irsv further it is necessary for you to rrrogni*c the fact Llnd lln-re ure two essential tiling which von inusi 
utilise to Income a sucee^fnl penmnn. Tlic one is jtmty and the other is prttctirr. Study critically Hie torn, to he produced and 
then practice faithfully to realize It. It is simple the old story of mind and' muscle combining to produce a desired product. 
Neither one will d» ."done. The two mmt go hand in hand at nil times. 



U ATI: III A I. S 



In order to get I lie mast mil of tliese lessons, it is necessary that you have good materials with wltieh to prnetiee. 
Pakkr. Klrut, you should have \n»n\ \m-\n-T. Th* sheets should ho AxJO inches, faint ttud wide rtdrd. and nf ipnilitv cotishh 
erably nhove the average louml in hook stares. The Mirfiier should he fnirlv snumHi. dthough not glnssv. If vou desire to 
praelier on hid one side nf It. T> \U. ua\ut in licavy enough, hut if ynn wish to prrtetii'e utt hfdh sides, von will need ill*. lit fl lb. 
jiaper, 

lSi.s-h ami icnrnMi, should reeoimncnd the use nf tlic Zanerian ideal or /.nuerhm J-'ine Writer [tens, the latter being flner 

arid more flexible tlom the lornier. We recommend uu nhlh|ue holder that has been propcrlv adjusted tiv one who has had vears 
of exiK»rienee in this work. The cost of a holder In no way assure* Hie purchnser that it 1* adjusted pm|K rh for professional 
writing. II therefnre |wiys lo xvt-ure the hes| from those vvlinin you know to he competent to adjust such n bolder. 

Ink. Tlic ink »houhl lie free ilnwihg unci nf mjeh a ipinHty a_s to make faint hniMUies and black shrnles. ArmddV Japan 
JI1k Comes more uenrly Ijlliu- ttir M ' rt^ndrenients tlintl ,'inV other of which wi- huve ktmwletlge. /anerinu indhl ink (s another 
high graiie effective Ink. 

Cunmxc. Wear a rather light-weight, loose-fitting eoal; rather large in the sleeve and We ctt the armpit. Cut the 
umler sleeve nff nl the elbow mid remove your enff. mul umiilI] v roll up Ibe shirt sleeve wilbin the emit sleeve. Wr do not 
retuinmend pniclreinc with ibe hnre arm upon the lahic for If you get Int.! Ibe Imhil of ivriting v itluiut a eoal sleeve on vou find 
it i]uil? difficult to dn yourself justice when wearing a coat, as "is usually ned sj.ary hi most oftices and sehmils. 

Posmojt t The Illustrations showing |Hi>jtiouK ure suclt that we would recommend that you follow quite as faithfullv ns 
your peculhir physical make-up will allow. Note particularly tke location of the elbows the slope of I he I. nek. the angle nf the 
pajier. etc. Provide yourself with u blotter t* lie kept under the bund fur the little finger to glide npun* Form Hk 1 Imhll nf 
ihphling Ikdh your blotter and vonr pajier with the left hand. In e\<Tutinjj small letters, lean forwartl further thm. when 
executing capitals. The eye needs to he nearer Ihe small letters than the capitals, in nrder to f.ee details. It is not a bml plan 
to shove the point of the elbows onto the table fur producing small letter* and to ptdl I hem off of the edge of the desk when 
starting to execute capitals. This slight change of posture bus a tendency to give better control in small letters while leaning 
over Um- Elesk, and to give greater freedom in capitals while flitting more upright This slight movement of the trunk tif the 

hiuh haekwHnl aiul 1'nrnard when king small and capital letters is restfql rather than tiring, and enable* nne tu acciimmndale 

hi- diiiu-ri In -ii it the work nt ham L 

a 



The plate below is for Llie |>ur|>o&e of giving nn idea as to how letters lire measured nnd their shm I determined. 

As i.i shpwn I hereon, the dawn strokes lire on a shmt (if ,W degree^ while the up strokes fire on * ■d/nil of 2a degrees Tlie 
s I Hires are the name in width a* in height „ 

Of course, nn one cjiii wrlti: freely mid « rile un , i , li:briErnI]y e\ju-t, but it is well to hove exact models fro|it which to 
|.r.n'l in- Riid Iron, which lo furoi pi ivr | it-.. phtle v. ill ,-iiuldi- you L>> •»<•■: n lu'lh r id."< .il' I In- [H'lMpuM inn of Irltew lli-m 

would lie | wss i ii I L* without the space mid shint lines. A critical exniuinntion of the hnsic principles will lend to clcurer concepts 
,mi.l enjiMtiui-iiili- iimrr skill fid exeeutioi;, N'ntc pa rl E<-idnr]y the proportion nf letters Hint is their ft hi live height mid width, 
length and shape of shade, nnd wlirre the heaviest part of the tihndc occur*. 

Tin' ij h i Hi ta i u ■ i l LeLU'rs. lire one spnee higli< with the exception of r and * which nri 1 ahout n sprite Find oile-bulf high. The 

1. d ud ^ cover three *pj s. while the loops cover four spaces. The capitals are tidier still, heing five -space* in height. These 

proportions iuay he changed lo suit Ilk- *tjle of writing ilo-jivd, Tlint is, Mif hop Jelled nmy he made hut three spaces high if 
(leslrt'd t nr they tuny "he made five (ir nix spitccS high. The capitals too, may be cliungn.3. nnd Li 1*1 lend n1 iH'ing i\vu\v rive spin 1 - ■-. 

fa 

»!> tie n io slLow n. flu y pjiay he miiclc hut four Space* lugh t or six or eight »f even ten space*, as the tnstc of tlie writer may 
dci-idc or ^the purpose for which it Is intended may d« I eriiiin*?. The main thing nEwnv., tu ke«p in mind is to have nil of the 
letters of n given group isimlhtr utid h* hint 1 some dellnlte relation shown between the minimum, the extended rtnd ejipitnl 

lctle.ro. It la not well to hnve one long lojjp and rme short one* nor one large capita! and one fundi no i the Mime page. 

I 'ntfuruiky or e^nsistuiiey is essential. * 

TIlU likeness or sioiilnrily of letter* h what cielerridnefl thi". rcidly goad from the medium mid poor or ntiproff .^aunil, 
Himihirih nhf style, or slant, *of shade, of proportion* of simplify or complexity El r.ssentlnl for mil excellence. 

t 






TOP HIE/W 

1 — ^ 

?R0PCH flhOLC OF" fA p tto * A^tl 1 Mi}, 1 HtUJTilfllCri 




/ 7 < 




Tlit-fic iUiLRtraticinn convey wIieiI wc consider a good, 
lifm-mJ. healthful pmelii-Hhlc portion t»f the IhhIj^ arm, hand, 
pe« + and paper. If yon are tail, s! coder, and tangr-flngcred. 
or short, fat, and Klwrt-flngercd, yon wf|] find Jt necessary to 
differ considerably from the illustrations Tu what ratent, 
your air* judgment must dictate. In fact, you ought t« study 
your own physical make-up In urd^r to dhefclc what position 
will cnaMe yon to do your heat work. The fact that we have 
prepared thr accompanying 1 11 lustrations indicate that wc 
wiHjld advise yon to adhere tu them. I 'or ati average height 
person, say a feel it Inches, thr top of the dr*k or table should 
l>e about it ]nrhL-N above the seat of the rhjirr. 



V 



THE STUDY OF FOKM 



5S52!?:£5 SSf^ iD ? ccut3 <" 1 0f Su P° ri,>r P^^F- They nre Option ami t*rf.>rm.m C * The hand 



C4IIJ 



( ]J ; r t ihTM1 thc d ™ ™* I"™** <*■ other hand, the h, tn d uuconseionslv endenvor.s to follow the 

1 i r> ° ' r VOrf ^ thC hftnJj H***** 1 ^ 0l,d trained, becomes the rvadv B erv.. nt of the will A .,d 

US i r r "T::^ t* cxiM,mce * ,itc as p^-- p™q'«°« * R ^ poor « m 

ti , t ]r,M ] r " "™ '^ m * Stud >" ca " fl,H r and form before yon befrin to practiee u,«ir, it. Py »>'d<»na; vol. 

will n«t only ]rnm to writ,' ft niueh filler luunl but will do S o in much less (taw. 

And matter of portion i* unite «< dlflleult to n^drc as tlu: ability to excite. Eve training I* therefore just g| 
important aa muscular trahmijr, and as tedious to attain, ' J 

,. ir l Jfit*l ^T"** 1>P " Cti ™ " n - v ,,X( ' rdsi -' l^ndple, httar or word, study it carefully tinjr iir.t the relative height 

.ndU ltX, 2™ 1 " t0 «W*§*^ the little thin** such a, turn, angles lining and 

fl nd Sa^BaSSS f"" S*'^ n,ul I»'f«tiy- juat « perfectly a, you «L perceive, .ting a well sharpened pencil 

ad an ™ to make eorroctums In or(i *r to gel jn , t , su , t ]y what yon perceive. If you can ,et . IwEter id« J f urtll „f a 

m tWt r ° *?♦ T °f £ ' UT flne8t ,1C^nlen, m tf ' eir crwtam,T h> '« »* suc,, » ™**fl for hours ate^tag lo draw 1 

esppMd^l mid not ji |,ttir peper wo^ed |>y proctler following superficial «b S m fl tion. 

very * tlv Id tC'T^V^t^'x^^l" ^'"^ ° ^ ^ *™ ™ n « ™™ PNNg » up,n pap,. Someone . W 

therefore, t. , tu dy form and to study it M.lenmtieally and ll.ercf.re Ultiiflcultv, M f 

a " Vi" M t? r" llPnt i>l4 "' 1 " i wrfwtl >* ** ^» c »» l™Sv< ^e enlJrr ^phaheL Hy dr.wi.i^ vo„ can revise 

m * tmwhl* ,« a „ner w , wtC v, r you know about form. In offhand w„rk ,vc nm-lv r^li,. ,'r ideul. 



N 




'I'lIE MOV J-.MI'lN'l'N 



I tiere nr, two [or, ( s employed in «rtitta« one which may be termed ttie er,„tive force tbe other tin- ei,nt polling forte. 

result Y * P " hl h " ni1, ^ ^ rihblJn ^ "» ««« h*»d cra« lw d writing on the other btod 3. sore to he the 

r t J 'J ;r tLt ^ r " 1hli,mi tlim " t,h " f I!,l,sdefc J ' rf ™P J '>.™' ">7 " 3I penmen. The iuli^I^ iouil.d on (he forearm in 
™, " i , , 'T" ! "' pCrS - Thr If,USC,,e5 " n the "FP" "» n "'"^ f«"« n ut the elbow, T)»e muscles on th £ 
product" rD ° V4 ' ^ IJ1 ' ,lrr J ' rr " " l SUrmlti,>r ' lB tlu " 1>est WTilin * J,lt " f t"^^ m.iseles c ^rutr to produce the final 

*Wffltf W i^!* SS h,ree C * ntrollln,? thia tl,hrt fo]d The fl^l and mu,t it..,Mirlaut control b. that know as 

n * P ° J* *^ ' ie h,, P ,r " N !t ™ m « |C1 ^ the hi otter upcm uhich it glides ,,d rcsfe alternately 

.. „ IF , ld<fl lljJlt 1|k hj,,Kj ™* ^kle up«n the noils of the third *ml fourth nnger, J S ,.ir, tlu-rv, os prne- 

y none of our l,„ t ,l ,„.,„□«! write that way. Intend, nearly all of them r**t thr bund npui the side of the little iWr 
usUHiiy u^n the flesh s t ,mewi»ere between the unit and first juinl. This little jrtidc and rest aids Tn cuntrollinp the otherwise 
J*Tkv £ino sp; is modi i.- ruoeemeut.'; of Elie upper arin. 

In wrltJnf: thv miim u small lei lets, thi, little finder rest should .lip fr,, l v ir kinp m,^t of th, up strokes, and It 

Should rest or .hp hut very little i„ istll kinz U.r down stroke There are a few exceptions to this rule but thet will he „c,tid 
rrom tj,ne t„ l „ ne when the letleri* arc given for practice in which the t:xecptiun* occur. 

^e hnvv sn Ed nnthinff thus fur about the rate of speed, Your nervous fundi I [on will have much to d» in drterndnir thc 
71- r'! ,,t Whlch ■ t ' U sU0XlUl l>rj,ctlec wrllln ?- A good rule Is tu write freeiv enmi^b to keep the ncnons fi^terr, from 

' , "' rU "7 " P '■ lmli ^' 1lJ k «T s u„t of ,,,rv,-r| f,,r:„v li; t pid w,ili Hj! i, ,„tl rt f the -rHm'uW mil 

Ifr^ulnL-^ and aeeuracy «rc desired. Anil in ornate |* tunansbip, it is .nit ^iiantiU hut cjmdilv tluit eouul. Therefc 
enrn.pi! M >eed h> n.-ik, your writmp (tf^ ful, In.t not eunuch to prevent aeeurarv „nd precision 



hire use 



INK KXRIit 'IHKS 



Wr liiivt- here two fuiitl.Liiirnijd i ■ i ic b u-l'v important exerekv* ti i L - 1 1 slundd he iiiasterril before jmHeeilmg further in the 
hunk. These exercises are pven for a two-foul pitt-pose, tin.-: first uf which Is to secure qimntitg of netion stud tin- -eeum! is to 
secure qualify uf nrthtn. These exercises arc given I fj, rpri- in i»nlor tbul, sufficient freedom may be creuted to innike the execution 
-if letters unfair sijtr. pleiisurnhle in not as well ns In result, 'Hie nbswe uf shaded strokes" encourage delicacy nf touch as well 
ns freedom «f iicUun. 

Practice the oral exercise Use same shu? as shown, first using I he direct motion 2tnd then the indirect motion, endeavoring 
Id ninkc ft uniform in heigh I + shod mid spue I n^ 

And by oval exercises do not rnnut iuiv circular like farm, hut we mean llnl si It] In- of Hit- proportion of 2 

to 3. That* is, two-third* n.s wide ns Inn pi. Tt-elmietdly speaking they arc nut ovals hut ellipses, but they are eominmily ml led 
nvids hi tlit penmanship pro fusion, The sides nf thenr ovjiK nIiimiUI In- curved equally and the riids should be curved the same. 
Moreover* vim ihinikl brgin n tid eud the e\erei*f.' with 1 1 if s?luui si mil. That is, do n«t liegin witli one slmit and end with 
another, just wlmt is br%l in stunt must be answered by each iudividiml. hut there should he so far as possible hid one slant in 
e,iuh |n't"Miu"-, h, i nil writing* so fnr iih generality is emierrned. 

The arm should rest on the muscle in fnmt of Lhe elbow and not slip, hut should revolve freely wjlhjn the sleeve* which 
shoe Ed be loose find kr^ If you are In (he tudiit nf wearing an uiidrr -beve !>ch>w the eltupw, tt* would suggest thwt you cut 
It off lit the eliiow in order In let (lie nrm iiinve frwlf wilhin 11 h l- ctlier s leevc% 

After mastering the ovnl, yon will thi well to tHke tip the straight-line cxereise, making il tlie Aame rJunt ns the ovjiI anil 
without ttie use of the fingers, b\ pushtnp and pulling the fattilm In and out of the sleei-e somevtiuit dim^oMnlly, Son™ ckII 
this the poidi-and-pdl motion while others, cull it the in-and-out BUrtloiL SUA to it until you cun make the. exercises mi if nrm in 
%\mkt, in -ipiLelrm and hi hri^ht, Afler making u Rex^tton one or two inches in length, shift the elbow ur ym]wv ^ij.'htly and make 
a nether sect ion, Kivji on udding sfelliui on to i ret ion iiiilll you get across I In- page. Then begin regain, x 

lieniemlier I here nrr two tplnlilies of wetkiii you shinild see ure Uk ftracti^tng Ujwui these eKeririheJi, The first is th* cdi]lity |U 
inove the pen in n eirruhir or hack and fnrtti mnnner freely, foreeJ'nUy nrnL rapidly. And tin- Hteond is that yon eullivjite a lighl 
uniform deliente toueb of the pen to the piper So thst all lines either 'up or dmn &iw einndly thin. These farm* shiMild Ik 1 made 
at j=l>out the rate of L 2W down strokes to the minute, 

lo 








L I 



- 



DlilECJ rONB FOR PRACTICE. Let the little hnjier d.tk freely tin the side between juhit and null En all furin* herewith. D.i 
not iim- thumb nr first nr secure I fingers in tliis lesson except to hold the pen. If you rest un side uf linger, nrid we believe it In-st to 
do So, always twe a blotter In nv.( tin- hand npun. A fler writing oncthi rcl of the way jhtnj.w thr. page nr i unking one exerrise^ cither 
draw the. paper to the left or shift elbow to the right. f)o imE try wrilo across the page with tlte. elbow mid pn|u-r in uiie place. 

jfon, 1, 2 and y are made with the fcrn-nrm jieting n-, u Wmpr :t| the rlhow. No*. + f 5 and G t with the same movement in eon- 
jnm-tion with an in-nnd-unt action of the arm in the sleeve; the two moveimnts prciEttivliip^ a dfngottAl acttno of (ht> arm as It 
enters the sleeve at the wrist. Kq$> ? nod H. the Same movements as heffirc t combined and reversed^ product inp a compound 
elliptical action on the muscle in front of the elbow, Kos. & and in nre produced by uniting the former separati-. simple motions, 
resulting hi a compound, i-ireular exercise. N*o> II is prudueed with hinge action on" the straight line* with u jjrudiud backward 
actum uf I he arm in the sleeve at the elhow— Hie pni mnvis to Ihe ripdit— with h reveal of this same baekwa rd action in con- 
junction with a alight railing action to produce the compound eur**\ Xo*. 12, I ft and 11 are made similarly to the first part of 
preceding form. \m* 15, IB, IT and 1& arc purely ml ling movement^ with n lateral ami hm'kwnrd art ion ■ k r the fim-urm mid ellkiw. 
Kim. l!J, 'ID [Li]d l\ jiRme as preceding with lea* of the circular and more: nf the bin pre pthI direct lines- Nos. 22, 23 and 24 are 
hinge and backward net inns. 

Practice with Ft free mid easy net inn On these exercise* until yon acquire them. Make about :w>U ivtnaW-. per mi mite in most 
u f the forms. Nut that many each and every minute, but nL (bit raw. id speed. N« <. 10, 22, 2=1 and 21 art- not *v fast Study 
as well m practical The forms given serve in estuM Ishinp the simplest movements. 

The Sooner yon learn to criticise you? own efforts ami to Correct them the sooner will ion lea.™ to write braul Jt'nlly, Vou 
should, therefore, begin this day to find your weak points, and thru eradicate tlicni hy diligent practice, deniemher that it is only 
systematic* e id J nisi as lie. prii-jn^rly directed practice tlmi umh units lu iruteh. 

Cultivate the ability to make a uniformly light, strong easy appearing line. Wt say easy "appearing* line so that you mny 
know that we do not mean tlud it >,]iindd he Timde wiMnmt Hfurt. For ticj tiuiilcr imw eiisy the e\e reives appear after "they are 
made, they usually takr nil tin- attention one can give then* to mnke ihi'm fairly accurate. 

M«ke all i.if yiH.ir praetfee about one-fipurth Inrp-r thmi the f<iru^ presrnted. At times it would lie well hi dmihle Ihe siise 
of the fortrui, pcirtieuhirly of the capitals. 



*- , mJi ■ - ^ 




HOW W bj WHITE. I wish 1 could leil yon T one tiritl nil. just Iww I wriie. T wish I oouid tell you how our finest peumni 
write. I do not curt- to tell you how many of us jwy wrtt„c for that might prcwnl you frum (canting I* rin a-s well* hut how 
we utiHtfitjf produce the forms tliftt are so utiivursnliy admired. I know that it is so easy to say> "I use the nrm, combined, or 
some other movement."" mut let it go at that, as though that c*pln,ined all. 1 have liH'jiril many say that they used the combined 
movement. I have seen them write, yet pj] wrote differently* /I used tin: fingers souiej some used them considerably; all used 
the arm nnd shoulder muM-leM pack one used all the mnselcs a little; yet «rir- t>T two words con Ed not rxprc&s thrir innniirr 
correctly. What i> Inn- of I In- muscular j* true of any other gcne-rnl movement. Now, tin* ohjrei at these If-ssons is tit ti'll you 
how to livnn to write—fea write m Sp-ncer, Pllckiiifrer, Hloscr. Mrwlarnsa, Taylor, Cnnan N Courtney Doner, Mills nnd irmnv more 
who write iY>!hsterfu]|y r 

And Dim - , in beginning, do not fail to seen re the position we have illustrated. The angle of the |ta|>er is essrtiHul. The: 
forearm should he held at right angles la the connective slant. Will; the nrm hikI paper ii/ position us described, little finger 
resting— gliding on blotter — you may place the jien cme-tenth of an Inch above the line on lite paper and draw it to the line # 1 
hd angle of rtbmit 50 degrees («r ftnv similar jiiigh- Llmt y*m may nrinpl for your penmanship) without slipping the little finger 
or allowing tiie thumb ami li r - 1 mid >evood fingers in act. Thin will pause the juinK of the: lillle in id fourth JmgtTit to urt 
slightly. This slight action will he caused by the friction of the lingt-rni and the hkdter rntWr than by voluntary action of the 
miml ti|tpii Che liaad i ousel™. Now this will seem diflkmlt at first, but nine out of ten of our best penmen use more or less of this 
iMveirr[]t, Tnany tlotug bu iiueunscinuhliy, ?ts did the writer for years. In faet it is almost impossible to write ,t very line hand 
Without this action. The little finger will therefore nut need U si;]? ufj nnd nV<irn **rj p for. not mure Ihnn lm|f the height of the 
letter. In producing Xos, 2 sin. I :i (Hr.-.l line) tht- Ml IK- lin»er sh lU ,|o «i|jp frivlv to the ri^ht— the length of the line. In the 
second line the action should eoint? from the elbow, the loiter serving Rfs the tenter of motion. In fact the motive jiower fur these 
small letters should come frnm tl»e bicep and Irieep muscle* helwwTi the elhow and shonldi r, I he orm .should rest on the nuiscle 
in front «f tlie ellHtw. L*t tbr *lfiwp & ti* fhi> renter of tt rrmtiz?# mat fan. find tit* little $uff*-r rent ox tht rrafrr of control. 
I *l the little finger glide freely to the right in making up strikes, and let it rest or jrlide freely in making down strokes. 

N<nv da eoEi found it with the finger movement^ as it is no! finger net Ion for the IhiiTiih wrid first irad secorul finger*; 
nt eel nut aft. See that the forenrm nets like n hinjre at the elbow in making up strokes. The Hand must not roll, nur the 
wrist work. In proftuelng Ihe it|> stroke (retrace) of r the little finger neeil not slip; this will en use a perceptible aetion of the 
id the iiii] tel. 



ecntrnl of r mid v. 



incniher^ u 

Pniifift slightly, «r rather, cheek tlie motion, ia producing shaded strokes, such a* last part of h and n, 
nnd in lini>hing v anil r. 

Set- tlud the urtw ^iiiv- I'nvJy. 1'rinn the elhow iit nil tip ^1n>ke> (c\ecpt in such ?t> ^Ii;iEI lie rmlned). and eSpfeinlly sn n -, 
I ■ H hi" elejiily itolit-ejibh' in tie wide sparing* joid buig initial nnd finiiE s,triike^. To secure lids direct lever-like movement piMi 
mi tlur pen in pTotliicinjj the long stroke. Hold the pen firmly ji| ji|| tiling mitlur hhtsely nor vice- Li 

14 



J / / / s / / / // // // / 

-&* 



^7 ^? 



-/- 




LlAkSlL TI!K VV.S 1 KTASION' A LLY. Vmi mux (slumhl) Niise the |k-u ji t the dot of f and in making Clieek the liliiLion at I 
Uie shoulder of (In' set-nod style r but do hr»t stop it, Hnise the pen as sufcjre-sted in Y«u should nutki- the down .strokes In * 
and n more quickly than the avemge down strokes in order to curve them well. The little finger need not slip in making the 
smell f*. Inil it should slip in prochiring the down stroke of *, especially when the pen raised at the hnLtniu, Draw the first 
il'! 1 , 1 . it -liiiki- iif 1/ jjviilli to 1 1 1 <■ left, nuikinu: it more d el ibr.T ji I l-Iv jhicI lunger dirnl iitnri' ^Ejinliii^ Hi, ml Hie -nviTujEe (town Stroke. 
Notice carefully that the cluwii mrrukes of * ,'oid a Fire quite slanting, hut thnt of the a is Irss curving, Make the three inn in 
stroke ^ of fr without slipping the little finger. 

In producing turns thnt are very short and angular, the pen ^lt«>LilcL stop, hut if you prefer ruuiidutp, full, Free, graceful 
tu;rij>. th;- pen should lit- kept moving rit n liwlii-r jisiee. In fact I like: fl ftv.i: t ezLsV mid prEteefid [notion, heeausc thnt menus, 
when under controh FrL-e, g nice fid, hejiutiful forms. Master the preliminary exercises, element ;mcl f rimin^-- In- fore hegimdngou 
the letters, 'lake one form at a time and fill nt least one page (bctwet-ri lines included) before beginning another. ]>u not 
hurry - neither should yon sleep. Study y<mr movements jind yi?ut form*. Criticise ntui correct, Turn your writing' upside clown 
and examine it critically, "When your movement is stiff, practice prelimina rii's ^ikI wide uprn-in^ bel^n-u funnv Knise tin- 
wn find shift the elbow to the right or pull the paper to the left* or tioth, fnun twu to sis tinies 1 in writing across the page. 
When you desire to improve In form (after practicing umvemrut* Select principles* letter*, and words with normal spacing. 
Ituise tin- pt-n whenever tins movement lH-cmnrs cramped. If your movement seems wild, jerky and nervous, push mi the up 
strokes. It' your luui-euuint is sluggish und your touch heavy, practice long-line exercise* and free, light, graceful movements. 
You should make the shaded strokes more slowly Minn the Lighl ojif-j< You should umke I lie n's (singly) Fit the rate of about 
thirty per minute. Not that many every minute, tint at thnt speed. You should umke about three, then pause and criticise and 
observe. I 1 ge your best judgment as to fust what peculiar action or movement is nest for you. If you con use the fingers h 
little witln ut weakening the Line or producing irregularities and nervous k inks t there is no reason why you should nut i\a so. 
Most oi' our finest | ten mm use more finger action than 1 think bestj but whether it is their winy or my thinkiiiff that is wrong 
you inns I determine for yourselves. 

Dn not shade all n> nor omit slwule on nil 11 i> ;l jjlukI plan to learn t" shnde every other a <ir a in your practice. Be 

ng cL th lI full. Curve the dowti slrfjk:.-- itf the * i!H>n.Hidernbiy Jind tjiisc 
tlu' |icn at least once in LiiMking it. Do yuiir best each tlnu-, Mnke stroke enr*'|esslj\ Aim, at nil times to practice thought- 
fully tiud with the vir-w of improving each and every form. This will mean mental ns well n* miiNcnlnr effort. 

id 




J7 



GRACEFULNESS AXD SYMMETRY, Gracefulness of line and symmetry of fnrm or* mftmu the chief e&senLhiU of 

ornamental wrfKo*. Linn taonld bp delhithly curved m»L forms should be Full mid well rmmdeo U hv of the greatast vfllufc 

i.iDts, loo, should sir -, V, -i ■ i ■ 3 cK-lit-iiU- and si roup-. Thee should Ik fiilut, vet firm Contrast of light mid shmlc Js still 

■ *m E ^ rnhoL -All 11,1,1 1'iwsi «re pretty, but wlu-n Clmv ■ i J bin led li v mi ^eHSiotml hriltlmif., Muck shade Ibc bcmitv 

is still pi miter. 

HUM tfi WAKJ-: | P d ANi3 />, The t'*, ,f> nml seem to be specially suited tu UlU light shade condition. Let us learn turn- to make 
tneiu ifejrm the I much n« you would an f. Hut instead of slopping tt„- , M n „ r reversing Uie rnotinn nt (lit- hi <aul-l:nc, ns in i. the 
pen is nupcil while the |>en is still in motion run I on its wnv to the top to come diitt-n apjnbi. When ahmd thre.; ^iku'm, JiUve IUm 
ifise line it stops, pause* in the air, Ihru Hidden ly strikes the paper firmlv cnuiigh t4i jn T or jolt or force tht- leetli or piiint* of 
nie pen F t part und then start* toward Hie base llne t to be lifted ffnidwtUv mid dexterou'dv mid* swiftly from tin- puper ns it nenrs 
i in- head Hue umL tu be raised clertr of tin- png^r s..riM-irhcrc hctieecu the head and base lines, Either this, or tu be carried 
flJmost to | tie hue, wliL-n- tin- net ion is ehcekod sufficiently to allow I he turn to Iw made rm I he line delicately as hi the i 

Hi tt it is mil done, jfct tup Es nut jet square. It must be "retouclied." This must lie done in- making the top level mid 
JiuTpcnitifT the «>rn-- h irs. The cros.sinjj is usually added br making a compound curve over the letter W o short Linn following j|, 
n rm' J?"""' 1 " " j Ulst * <rht muvcirwilt Comes froni the- Und and el I urn. Tin- net ion tomes from tbe el how, but js Mibrliu-d tn 
im- blue fln^r reMitiif flnuly cm the blotter mid nctlnj? In con] unction with lb* urm itnd perluips Ibr oll^ r liners. If you d"n 
noi iinse use pen tie.tr the line, it Ik mci ^ry h. ilm tin (iuhitj, more tluin (IcsrrMKtL It if. not u xi» Ui u*i* the fttiEers, hut It U In 
tise iriem tu excess. 

The & h made so sTnuhr i» thr / that addilhuiul in^truethu^ are iniiim-Shiirr uuh -ns the; ullier is not pin in. 

I he little llniicr should slip tWh from (he time the pni sijirts until it stops' lu nuiking the first two strokes la v. The 

,'. '"■ kl '' ■ l! -" r " ivnti-r Tl .li. ul.l ...el likr =. hiu-.-. Allrr kini; Hie tin .1 roke, nuiu- r„ ail ,l H„. 

i i II J ''^ ^'t'S""^ ^"-I'l'tly ahunl Iwci j,pnecs below the line. The piessurc of the nen upmi the iiaijer will he RulTieient lo 
cju-ek the motion. Simnrc slmibirly as the t H nd llnlsh tike mi * or an iu verted 

>lnjiy rif ,i,ir host pfflinen make the shade* n f ^ uiul <f with a verv *nnp-like, spasmodic, nr impulsive Jieticm, ^iilJe others 
i (raw tiu-rii rjilher delitjemtely. I prefer h euri]]inimUc of the two. niul tliercfore make them f>*clv, ihcm R h not so qjfekly nfi lo 
rjtn cr it rtskj m.r so singly „, hi prruh.ee » r^ufrli or nervous-fike line, The little ftn^r should freely in the Connecting 
i 'm'^ P r,,t ty securely m the down stroke of t and if. J^arn to rely more upon Yourself lb»n upon these ins I nir thins 
.nut >ou vrtU theu surely sm-ceed. Turn tn these rernnrks for correction .ind coiiHrumth.ii, |n 
yoursell u-r heuse. 

IH 



I he !-opit'k fr>r inspiration, nnd to 



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111 



HOW LOOTS AUK MA DTv Loops urc u.suhIIi- considered difficult. I iMiimot any thiiL I ihu\ tlu'iu very riuiell more sa Hum 
ninny short li-Hrm. ] du riot think Mint ymi will find them so. either, If yvn xvi tl observe tin- proper pnsition. ItcmpmbtT thp 
paper shmdd l>e no held that tli* forearm will ha at right angles lo 1 3 1 1« roiiueetfrQ slant. If, with tlic paper in this portion* yWO 
will c jiusp thr piin to mora to the right and upward, causing u -slight baekwnrri and then forward ptetlon of the arm In the sleeve, 
iei (.'!.> 1 1 j Miii 1 1 1 • 1 1 ..ill, I Hn hin : _'L- rm.1iii.ri. mid Ltn'ji wHIhiliI shipping fc he penal il„- hupiLlluu il Ui turn iiJmipUv .md defend |inv;ird 
the [inc. inisilitf from Hit? pFL|w:r Sumewlu- i v I *■ ■ i vs i 'i -a i thr L-rris-iiig and Mil: base line, ymi ill no donhi: liiul, in due time, that loops 
arc not mi diiiieult Hi'ter nil, Rut y*n\ arc in»l doiu\ Phu'e LIk- pen ejirefully 4 mi tin- uuflntahrd stroke and omipklc as in 1 or 
n mid van will have f nr A. 

tf yuii ilo not wish to raise Ike pin ill or m-itr Mu- ending. Mien let the lingers act hi eoujuiietiuu with the hinge action of 
Lhe elbow find check tin- [notion il.- ymi Jin- ioming down ut Mie e ro.s.s ij ijr hy h-Ming Mm- ljtth* linger drug less freely or rest. You 
( linnet make loops .successfully if ymir fu rearm is: ml right Finglrs to the hfix*' tin*- without a goml dr;d »f Jhkger ncthiri. Wherrae. 
with Hie paper turned ns Wfure advised, you cannr.it use (he fliigcrs much, but the musek's M Ww upper 11 mi instead* This; 

hinge-like fiction fa the real movement fur producing hmg, slender, fcubittantlal loops. In fnrt, iL i* Lhe he*,!- ve ment we have 

with which to cvii interact finger net km. 

I "I ■ I .! . I M I N A li ^ K\ |-1K(.*18KS CTOMK FIRST. t>f CuorSe thr prt'ltnlinarv exercise--, musl In- niFL.stcrt'd hr fun- ntt erupting Ike 
letkr.v The letters must In- nuistrred hr fore attempt iim words, Tht> pupil must reh~ iipnn Iljs better liidgniuiit nUont Mlc l lit|lc» 
Lhiiigv Now. don't wurk hwi hard al Hifr kop hiisincsit. Simply let Ihe little ftitpcr slide frcclv, mul h-.l llu> jinn act as a hinge 
at the i-lhnw. .iin I y lii l uJII find loops to 1h- pii'iisnnt t«i praelicr. ^011. nuii' find Ikcin hard rit !>r:\? lmt tin- lunger tn-ii prni'ticp 
il. 'hi- ni; vr Mil- iMisier they will kt- p nnd lW in'llt-r you will Jikr tfiznit 

\ WOFit) AISOt'T MO V h VI i:S" T. ]\,-,-p in umhJ ih.,* ., Indil. r-i-v. grjiL'uLid, n-l firm >uui d..- li.-., I,- nn^i'invii I i-- L'siriMiji! n( i I 

Mines. Do uo3 scn-w yunr m li.sc lY*, down so lighMy liv urrvtnts anxietv lhat thev v 1 ?n L Xnr must vou M tli-^rn he so 

kiasr that they lh>p riruund rrtlker than dunce ur waits!. 

h>ep in mind Ikp fi^t that movement must 1» controlled as well as created r You miftl W-.\-.\> In urik- with .siviuiug fji^- 
und Fit tin- ^irm- tkm- pul ftirth your greutcst clfort, Knr tin- kr.sl prmni Fi un curth inii-,l iH or^jirilv kerp cloic wulch nf his pen, 

i- vcii alter lie Urn. heer Ji muster. It Hint he trut- p how much more f^entful it la for the leaner tn tin Ikp nam?. Like all thing> 

clfie worth Mt-nring, ptrniuun^hifi riif|4Mivs lull, dst* the rkk alone coitld poEse^f; it, llnl whilr tli4 H tan bay costly paintings, thev 
'" : pi- iiu,-,- (Snv \te unship uithmil first r iny it In wk. Il is rici-illf>s h- \vU\ ,i» id' tin- rii-h 11 iili- wcfl. 




21 



INVKKTKD OR LOW Kit LOOPS, On II h IiHmw tlit 1iu.it- ]im< was where L first learned lu use Iht Mfrff* rather than the 

(imrcr iLeliun. And it may be you can ripply 1 b*- same ilkpvl ni^rU td this class of letters must successfully In the banning. It It 
md mecissary to use (takers. Even the urithu dusts »f nuisnil.-tr mm-cuunl recti m mend muji* llngrr jic-EIiiti in tin- loop*, htil il i* 
LImtc I do not think it necessary to use them, or ut least not to produce their length. To mt It stems ra liver "funny" or queer 
Lu hear people, say « H se the finders slightly hi bupe, but do not use them In the smaller letters. Nov, It Seems Lu me, I lint the 
larger the form the larger should be tbe ncliim. In other words, when you have lurge forms use In rye muscle*, atul when you 

have small forum us*: sim.lt sdes. luii dci nut nrali rsNud me to say that in small forma we should not use targe muscle*. 

Miuiild uie large muscles in small forms, in cunjnm'tLon with Email muscles, to give grace, strength anil ease nf execution 
In the leirgc Fiumsj like locips, use the sniull umsdi-i in a *.•<-. md a ry manner, in conjunction with the larger mu^-lcs* Lo give 
system, accuracy and control That is, Jf you cannot control the large muscles well rnungh Lu produce the desired results, Lin n 
rail into ac-LEon tbe smaller m u tides to assist In the work. Do not let prejudice prevent you from using your God-givni and 

■■Jn-.:h-,i ^ "' h,,jl *•••'» [5f « heller I ther Mi-Tiif-. r-. The hM »f ir y.m will lii U l ]t h i cU *■ gh tn d-l guod 

wuii. hy using nil the muscle, without trying h> ilu rill your work with a few. Yon may have Some difficulty In getLiue the 
fusing tip fjir as I he lieiMi line in the limps herewith in coming from the bottom p 1ml it Khun Id lie there. Du mil the 
pen at the hniiimi, but keep it moving. IJy close ohf£Tvnti(Pn you will see Umt I he down strokes In loops are nut quite straight, 
or should nut be su H t leust. It is generally *up|iuscd that they are straight and are usually so taught, but none of mir b«^t pen- 
men or engravers make them so* Your yV might to make good h'e if reversed, your should begin tbc same u h"m. Do hut 
pause ut the top of your lunps nbove the line nor at Lhc bottom of tlmse below llic line, hut keep tbc motion guiou- Dm this |.» 
itvukl hhnr 1 1. Rriguhir tuni*. Aim, rL all time*, to Recure riiuugii spi-wl for gracefulness and smoolhjie&s uf hue. uud emmjdt 
control for accuracy and system. A good rule to follow la to "write as slnwly as you can to write freely," 1 ur "to write us freely 
as you can Lo write accurately/* In uthcr words, du not go So fast but that you can gu orderly, nor m shiwlv llutt vmi <:\m do 
yuiir work wllh apparent ease. 




2 1 



'Ill 



^ c t <7 f wrc M'n'tfwh"* < L i ilk-n3 1 to execute than the other loops, bafcUUa we have tin uji stroke three quires Lunjr 

Mir inn in slant. The little finder may slip or rest wlm-lkever w*y y<iu like hesL hi prmlueiup the lower loop in these letters. It 
j:, best. l»owcver, to raise tlu> pen hk job tome to tin* line liefurr ftddfof thi final curve. In the f r the pen mav he raised to advantage 
twnv, mice near the crossing gnirig dnwn ruul at Liu* h;t<.e Mm- enuring tip. If vim can make it »s we\\ i-.m m,d In- .niw 

ii f it en e h tursr, wit limit rai&hig the jien* so much I he letter; hut Uh-tc arc but few wh» tan. This rising of the pen 
frequently may seem to many very dctrcnicntaJ, hut J lutvr yet tn find a ru(Iu ■ienl number <i[' firn- {leuini'ii wltri flu nut rfLl SO the 
fieri rm|iti ntly t tt* indicate Mint ii js had. In truth, it Is IhU very reason why timny do not wnte Ml* t. Tln-v Fire not in 
raise the pen and not to use the finger*. It is simply nnnthrr prmi'f Mint precept Is not as pood as e^nmpLe. M' I were to write 
I wiis told 1 would not have written these lesson*. Why? ItermiKP 1 «n. hid to write, imt n* others wr.de> lint as -miir ,me 
! trim y fit St nnpht to he written. 

SP.U I S'tr. I have ^iid no tiling abmil spuein-r. 'I*he spares between letters sshmild lie n I rifle wider thnn Ett tetters. How much 
wider ( s a rn«Her of li«stc rather than rule. Yon fan fraujre niv taste hv consult inp tin: Kentenc^ "Good pcnuMuwhip pays/ 1 on 
tlic i\rs\ plate, btudy IL You will sn' I bill ait the words given for practice arc not Spaced the tanft Tin- .pneing was made 
witit* in some rmd narrow in others* to pjivr varielv for practice. Whr.n vimr movements become cramped and sluggish it would 
He veil to write the words with lung .sticks (wide spacing) between I he |rlt,- r *-. We do nul deem ii advkahle to ude wide 
spacing In the letters, as it encourage*, \i serri-wting hand. 

I'OltM STIJDY. Keep tun^EailtF.v hi mind tllftt nenrly nil uncles arc the Mime mid in-nrly nil 1mtji* lire lite snme. for instance* 
jie hip .hi Mit smflli * shmitd be (be ame if the junction of lines in l t the turn*, ul the banr should In- alike a*, well. The turn, ul 
the top o| Tin „ ^lioiild forrespuml with the cuir nt the hothmi itiid willi tliose », ft, cte. In fnct p by reversin-r yemr papers von 
can rind tii^ny defects not u.^jnlly nottceiUjt*. And if you cannot sec dcfo-l* v-ui caiumt lnrpTOV* rapidl v. It will not do' to 
know imit ^anethinK is wnmsr. You must lind what that something is; tlicn, no d-udit. von ean eradicate ttie wronir by riirhL 
prrietate. lh t -rc is no one Ihiiijr tlmt will slinw vrm u herein von are deficient In perception tit form sn well n* ^.uiJini; or drawing 
tlie fetter-, slowly, ISy ^i [|,iin k r the eye is rttjuir.-d |n direct the pencil, rHllwr Ihriu Utr nu^el.e 

l*U .\CTICB POINTBUS. Now diin't be afrnhi to practice qidtc vi^ironih at times on the work given. Tt would be well if yew 
upliE(| (UjLiliJe the sjse of the copies at times, and /it uthers tit reduce the siie a half mid doiihLe Ibe sjiaiin^ After praelieing'tln 
n iite i rent Myles i.i tins way iilwayff flnish your work by prncticiTig the siac and spaeing given in the etudes Ksen vnur pens in 
£i.ort enndition, nKHH yi-ur ink. Inn id mnterinl h essential, and it metl not meessarily Ijc expensive. 

21 



7^ T 



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2- 



In these exercises, ]t b nnl well to attempt to 5*C l» detaiS the fur in.-, «& t K**> full fr*E» Use pen. a* the JuMI tinl*t travel 
iWfr Hi. ii I Iff iv.' i. in iNLwl unci observe detail Erinti-fuJ of looting intently cHhur iit the top of the BXttrclfeS or At the bottom 
Tibllc making ll, tilt letter plan is to look it the cxerrifie. as a whoh T keeping ltlc P en moviug h(jri*onlnlly aewes the page .ho that 
the, exercise will rest OH Hie bape Urn-, In Hie diminishing eienilsc* simply sec thru I llic rsercise is diminishing tin i form ty and at 
llic rljrlil nilii.. \\U-r l be wi-rk is drim- alnl the- pen I i fled from tin- imper t the eye Can (hen Mm A tlir work over and detect 
where i« fnuMy it" iS-tnil. 

.Ml llnil Hie i-vi' ■(_ li ia luk|.w in do while the pell h In ci:ii»l J^hii i> Lu detuet wl tether tlte exercise*! are uniform Itt height. -|u,-in L - 
and slant, llnd whether they lire resting on tin* base line* whether the diminishing are diminishing fit the right ratio, end 

whether the shadt^ are rfglit in width. At the same time Reccmdflry eonufdcmtion may be ghen to such matters as curvature, 
symmetry* etc 

The first thing kt Cfluwidrr 3* |hr shajic nf the furtil. Tile second thing to consider Is the location of the shade. The third 
thing to consider h d» shape Ot* the *hacln ami where its heaviest part occurs. Tin- abMy t« Uttfcf what [f known 01 a ^welt" 
.shade — a shade that IncreaHCJi gradually antll n mi^inmm width ii> obtained ami H«'H instantly begins to diminish Is? riot ar^nirrtl 
in a da i', Almost nliV one cmi make a" long, monotom.osly heavy shade, hut cmty «n expert can make a simile short ami swelling 
ill the t'enler. To fiutfce ft short shade that "dwells well In the middle And tapers gradually both ways, reimire* a ioViek, responsive* 
llcxihlr, elastic, np uad down action. 

No istrelM is letter suited to llic development of the ability to make a short shade, and to place it high or low upon the 
form at will, than the old, tang * acctcfte on page nit. St tidy; carefully the fnrm df the exercise Hrahmde4 as given. Notice 
e.arefiitiy (hat the up rmd down stroke* iirtf eu'rxed nbimt erjually T and tlmt thtl itj»|H«- nnd lower Itwps of the esorci-i' in thi- 
name In and shitlt Practice upon the UDsllfided CMrclM until you C«n make the farm well. Then practice it* placing the 
shade below the crossing hut rait with the heaviest part touching the base line. After having mastered this, tak* np the inif 
wllh shnde; at the top, above the crossing, pruetiee it untO you can make the ihiide ahort nmd near the top. Next practice in 
rti i k, ii >i_r l -, ,-iv Lftbcr 1'htni '-limli'd al^vi" nnl i<.rv\ nltM-r I'nrni ^vnU'd I it.-l ■ 1 1% , In I imt - 1 : 1 " n _■ lm;. nl' 1 1n -hull ti, ( \;. i;.l -i- i.ir <- 
the center nf the form. Ptnally, to beCotOe ^unjilntit miKtrr of I hi* nil nl" -li-idmir. prrifttce tin- filial fWm of tlm laiijr * i\frcivr 
w herein it li shaded hr»|h n I tin- top and il the bottom. This nrtpicres Oil Unnsoally quick, clastic unci rCSpanslte ai tfint— ^in 

ft* 




27 



lit lit) h Ltinl Juitlij who CiiJI theroAclvc* pnifeAfijoriiiU hrivr- m-vi-r a tl ii i n . It [fi prerUflj- Ibr itppusite ni I In- fiction rrtjiiirrd of 
the feet and legs when jumping off of the floor and endeavoring tu track the heels together f/hrce times before: aliehtinjr, find 
there nrr Irwer people by far in Hit" wgrtd who can make this kmp * eScrclSir us it id-nnUI ]w jwtde Hum CJU1 perform the phyMeid 
fe*t just mentioned, 

III order to miike the direct ovitl a* .shown. .*.tnrt the motion before J mi touch ttie pen fca the »Hpcr K and endeavor tin curve 
both uhlc* etpmlly* pt-LriEijr, tin- henvie..*it pairt of the -iluidr at h&lf the shttit height, which In ahovp luiff Ihr hcijrht of tin' form. 
See lSi.it Ihr hhmie.s swell In I In* i -nil it ;ind tuper frrndindly both HjiVs, 

r l"h i' rr.TOrseHJTCtl principle Is the revert 1 n t the direel oval evivpi 1 1 ■ E M U h-j'l i*]h*ii ,d dsn- Ihivc. 'Hie reverse-oval 
principle With Hie IcpVP iihiidc i.s mrKliftt'd. by Ettitl t n Lnjr Hie rijfl.it side. And Jphn infr (In- heaviest part of the slmdc near the base line 
The TevcrKc oral and compound cni-vi* principle, us (n r. u und la curved n liltlr mon- in the tufijHnnlnjr than, the other principled 
ftttt mentioned, while thr shade, nlthnni^ji different in uhape* should In 1 Ii>£':l1it( nt lui | f (lie shint height cmicrrn-s Its heaviest 
part, 

Thi- ' fi Hm' last of the reverse -oiid and principles Hlld Its they lie at the foundation of form mitl evTulinn -I iid 1 . 1 d ir 1 1 1 
crlticolly ami practice them fitilh TnHv. und rrsnltx will k- fuLly 'upprrcEatcd later fin- Few .fitudrSils votk hmjf iiftd faithf iillv 
i-inHipfli upon tlmm principled before hnrrylnjr en to tin- letters eoTiHtrueti!d from Mn-hi. He, Hierefiirc, perSGTvanfr und patient with 
yum prnrlUc upon thtrin, ri'vEfwin^ them frri|uentlj- fmm time t« llttn- w[tli n ■.- ii- x\ i*f perfeetlnp mid rjui^terinjr tbrm. 

_ The cHpitjd stem fxercii,ej4 and prhieiplc* jts t<huwri oil the fi'llowdi^ [Y&ge* are very irnportunt* mid uliuuld In- ^Indit'd niiil 
pr4ie.lie.ird fnit.li fully fr<mj tim* |o llnuv These .-■■MTi'ises have lonjr slnee Iwn ri-vir\iii'm-Al liy tent-lift's i>f peniiL'tn-hifi fiiiiiln- 

nieutalu far form and freedom of the hi|"hest ordrr. A Iwrvc ma.strr the form tK»f"iv - 1 1 r jilinsr I In- ^ I unit 1 , iihhjt nn vnsy, jrritce- 

Pn! iiaHeirii-rit wilh Liij^Mi.TjdNri 1 itm-v and erirrjiy. 

X'ii UlijiiT iietSon whatever should l>e tJ.swt lit tht execution uf Capitjd h*ttcr-s. The flnprs, JuMlld hold the pen, und grip 
It SOIIiewhnt more tlgbtly vs'In-h nuikilljr a -shade than Hjrht line&« but TVD oOBKlnus effort 1ft tteeCHSalfV in this parlleulur. li I In 
fingers are ul towed to net In n>r> j niietion with thr arm they will JtEmottt invurlahly weaken tlte form jnid Hn tten ttic ovu].. Tlo- 
■htide.*; <m tlii- iMpitnl stern ftre loeutetl nn the lowar half of Hie letter nhrl hfuviest p.irt near the luisc tlm-. '("hf slnnt of the ^hade 
*-h(Ti[3j he on nn Jin pie uf ahnul twenty-five dfjrrecs. 

at? 



*4 








///// 



Take up ,,nv uxinisi ur fnnn ,n » lime mid stick to 11 until JTWI hive mastered lt T or iL (east uuitir MjL'^Biittnl Empruvt?- 

iL A * 11 r «'ft oT three pn(T<« at brtfct should Jfe drifted to a form before going ahead, N'ot infrequently It fe necessary 

to Cover" ^.tvcrjil hlnvts -Mr J Lis a form before improvement I* shown. Improvement Is more the re&ull of critical observation flrtd 
careful rflVt Limn prolonged but indiscriminate practice 

Kmh-Avnr U> ulwayi l), It rntint- the ihepe, the In.^jiticm And the sknt uf Die oval, as well 4a the location, the shape and the 
dint of the ^EmuI*, before proceeding WfHIi the pr.n-lir^. Mmh time, rff.»r1 ;ir H l piiprr iimv thus hp saved, ftS the ai-crapc pupil 
practice* rnlirelr too much nod observes, studies and erElleisea too Utile, Before one Can hope to cultivate good writing he must 
learrr to prmrm* it. In other words Or«e Kttttt Wnk good Writing before lis can hope to reproduce it And before aue ran 
1 ii i rite (Mod writ imp Ft i>. iKTe*i*ELry to jinnlyxr erirefuily. ntid I'ritLCHllY various forms COmprEsJliji Ihc .lortpl characters, fur the 
average person know* far lean about script forum thun he jmapitie*. 

Ihc vnTlmKt principEis presented RepnTfttely and combined nm) to lie studied patiently end Hh.ii practiced inU II i^i (tl I v 
ami peaeverin^ Good writing is n Rr owth ralli^r Hum it mm] dm attain)] jc a t. It tufa* months and years rather Ehnii days, nnd 
iveeks to nCi|iiire It. Therefore yam hhoutd not Ih^nithl- ili^ourugcd if lifter ft few day* or weeks practice you fail to write less 

Hum half a* welt r.s you think you should. The subtleties of script llnes t ahndes and forms art such u- \ a dr ml thi- iim-,; 

finality of our thought to perceive, n* well as the finest quality of pur effort to create and command. The fnir mistress of flne 
■"' "' wpit '■■ I"-'' - - . - 1 1 . : 1 1 tin i -I ll.-ii!' In net] ii ire I In Km if Mii.^iv.- ,. t oilier line ArK 

Id order to i.mkc capitals well, « is necessary to see that the forearm Is not encumbered with uoncccH.sarv eloHiin^ | 
iirm shnnld acl fnelj n» the muscle En front of the elbow, The fllhow Itself may be right off tie edge of the table but the fid! 
veEphl of tlie unit slmuM rent mi the inusele whkh shfluta he near the edge of the desk 

The cfcCrcJ/ieji from which the eapitals Eire formed shonkl be bold and yet delicate. Tills double quality denpandn tluil rhn 

H- cseeuied in a iMld-like rinrr T but with a touch that is delicate nnd uniform. Considerable power should I,? rated and 

Ml! Ill rev^r^ hi Ofder U> il,. I In- m-^rk .iidenlly, prm-i fullv and Willi ease. 











:l ! 





lilt 

VCE 
P' 

v "' w ;: ::::r r;::: — — > ~. - - - * ■* - - m - 

«, writing 1= «l dKlmtfe. far « ^ ««*r "» 3L ,,„„ Jl.. t , ^iUo. by (M M-i =»»■ 



JtQCUtffll 



jii>Eirnltiw ti i- tin- ■■'Hi" 11 i' pf" 1 '- 

e*«U .. «- - ■■• "—tp "r,;?:™^, 

*™1 HrlWV of curve tli.it determine tin f rnv -r«l »f .stroke*. 

«.»■*. F«m. Ml »o »!-™.nctr:™l. tart « IfcrJ boo «W«- • » »*! I ( ^ „„ ^ „ „„, 

*k H» atftol 0, fnr tortttK* to « ^ ' ""J" "J* ^ „ lh c, Ita It to tl-t l«T "<««. 

..,-,.,! „■ 1. v.,r, - 1 1',, r. .., „ ,.„. -..I I- ■ < 2 ,,,, , » ,l„ -LruiL-lM l«" 

„„ „„, ,kle ..Ml « «r« OB tl.C rthtt S» ™l >J-n,mrtr,. -.li P.- «W« SO ttu... » MM 

A „ _2uM. art to. k« ft, H-e «~ .... « to, or ~* »» 



uiidi tlif ciin itiir. lirn-S ■■- ■' ''" "-»' ! 



.A FKW PAR I INC HI>UI>S A Hi >l T SAM LI, LETTERS- Now, &inee we have begun the practice <»f r*pHols do not rcegted 
tin? filial L letters. Kixp in mind tin- fael thai they sire of rhfef imporatnve, and Mint your success jus- a |wmnan Vfli Ih: more Mir* 

' E'f nun urn l Jf Von ivrite lhi> Mimtl letter* Uniformly well th-m ]f you dash »fT breesy enpitalu »t the expense of the ainnll 

1 1 » -laas.. l.nx\* nf exeeulnm will clit rtfti n™- Intwiird nuthiiij; your f-orms prftccfuL ttat.ii anything elS«N aave jiti nr.eunitr knowledge of 
iitttn; hut 1L- Iwq luprllirT — fWm mid iinHvv<n* - tLl— are llir main requirements. If you have them y<m are fortiumtr^ 1ml If ytm 
Jiaivc Uicnt In aot, yrtU need nut di-tjutlr. 

PRELIMINARIES FOR CAPITAL PRACTICE, The prHjpnintiry exerelMr* nbd principle al the lu F .if each plate shuul.l few 
mastered hefrire Infill nil tin Lli i" lerti'is. Sri* llitil your sLintli* arc coiupfimtively short, iluouih and fat, unci your m-juls I'm II, frvr 
and graceful, "['.. -.run: thr*e csjicntbds you itnwt let the arm revolve freely uti tht* minvrde wiLliin the sleeve n L [he dlnn*. tLsiiii? 
a pretty lirisk aud forceful* yet delkrUc rtcllam The power should eoiiw ehirrly friuu the shoulder. The nuiHclr in frnnt nf the 
elbow must wm el!» the iij^in mder of tnotlua and of control This R#t may bfl Mftr tin-' edjre of tllte Uh]t? r tn fiH-l, ttLt- elbow 
iTiay be vff the edge Of the table, hut tin? whole wrijflit of tin- arm should rest. The arm may he plnccd further an tht? tabic for 

Minjilt lettorff. 

Dit tint fall to keep tin] posit inn reeiunnwmtt- tl, rl™t inf liuv.in^ the forearm ni rijjfeit unple-b with the Connective slant- Shift 
the elbow In the rajlht often or I lie priprr lu I Ik- ln-t'1. i-nidluk, Hn- .irm may lip held rrmrr nearly at right angles to the line 

mi winch vim write. As will be seen, I he heaviest port the shade* is about half the height When yon find It diilruR tn determine 
l he exart enr vntiire of n stroke, turn luick nnd study the ftrsl plntc. For It is jis nrcessnry ilmr y^u itndy form ami smuv 
rtCCUr^Cjr- In eqpHaU us well n> In muiU lelter-i. These letters nhrmld he mnde willi jl Ml, free, eirruhir action. Tin- ■..Inidr- 

ihoidd bu mndf wills re thnu ordinary furce and firmness, thrrugli not stiffly, If yon urn* thrn-iiii^liK iiifenTi"-l«il in ^mtr worL, 

yocfc wll] derfw much pLea^nri- in ii« | Hiring [ hem. C«inflilcn4:e is csjicnlint In inilri. ilr]ieuU% j/r?ifffuL JUTnrate eapitnl pnietioe; 
OIhsctto L-JLrN'hjIly Ihe loeatinu nf I he ^Isade. wfen-re it H heaviEHi^ where! it twi^nR Jind Irrnniiates. J*li-. 




SYSTEM, SYMMETRY, AS" I J SIM PL ICE FY FOU CAPITALS. I lu liiLl^uy «r y c F students is to r;iF* HNJivi fur iiidis,- 

n-inilmtti' HnmrjNliiiijr Hum fur M-iti-m. symmetry jiJhI £ini)i] icily. The cliiy Fur Hniur^h-hurdelH-d capitals ttlid cramped small 
h tiers la \ntxt -Ihey were the allies of' whole wrm and finger movements. Today* the Elm 11(1 writing thnt pleases most must he 
nrlllen vrjth ji uniformly frep i ff rar^fiiL : ir*L3 eon I roll n Me move aienL, alike ish eapEtak and Bnmll letters 111 fnct» tlie movement 
wlijclt is i-inirtoj'etl in .swiill letters might to he elilpluyed to 4)' ale n inline Hit ea pilid h 4 iind the moliiui i-junluycd in capitate; should 
lie utiltKL-cl hi pis? freedom, gracr^ mod .NtTfiHfrtll til the Miiall letlers, Therefore, ilo etui divorce Hie movements, tOd completely, 

HOW TO MAKf. OVALS AND SHADES, The oval forms, should he made wilh a Tut], fOttefuJ action from the start. 
The *hutie ftliEinkl lie produced with * firm hut not Rpasn iodic action. The fingers must not act hut grip and bald the pen mure 
hniLty Hum ut oilier thnrs (tlnnifjli this, will "Im- somewhat uncunsrlnus- ) 'Hit- .-Aijuh- slmu'il lirjrin jiI hull' llir ln'ijrht. And right 
here l«t me adil lliat shiiding rHpilrv-g a double nctlnn. Not only Hie pen he drifts iilumt n ivulrjil |Hiio1 tit produce Hie fulh 
graceful oval, but It must hr fa reicd up and chiwn ((lit- ]H>intu forced Ji|Mirt mid t!i*n allowed to return In their normal position) 
n4 welt, riiiil n1 Hit' senile lime. This require* whttt is generally termed jm "ela I L be' 1, action. 1L is. this, flexible and elastic action 
thai produces I hi 1 shorl, full, smooth, and S]iurkliliiur *hndc tvhlcli distinguishes professional writing from amateur effort*. .\ 
fWJ general tendency in small letters Is to curve the op Utrokc4 too tnOeli and to make them Um sluggishly and lightly, Thnt 
the tendency la to uS* a TOOTeuWht which laeks force { a movement t not direct from Uie elbow. To overcome this + it is. well to a*he 
that the little linger slips freely with each up ulroki- iiruJ Tluil I he r, in lion come* direct from the cIImjw, Etie forearm serving us n 

Kndcavor to digest the meaning of (be Jft!il line and tu allow il to crop nut of tin- Mww and |w-n ill Hie L'oflil nf n grace- 
ful, flCCUfiltt- scrip!. Keep in mind thnt It a^t alone i|ijjintlty 1 1- r' fic-iclnv Eiut qutllt^ or kind of pmctin- tEinl ii«v«-Ui|K 
mi [if i-ior pH-iuii^i nsliip. 



1 




3!f 



SPEED ANU SI IAD I'", IrH tin- pen he driven mrr t\n- ] taper wish rnrtMdcrBble speed and force* Make the flrs.1 rxerctM: at the 
rale of al^mt 100 down stroke per minute, 'flic bwtfift pari of the Bhude ahoufrl be placed at about half the hcijrbl. The 
Shade should he short, thick iit lln- <vnln-. slender laVUml the ends. It .slunitd not rstr-nd up or down ffir enough tn rlotmcl 
from the delicacy tl-f the turns nt the tap and hottom. TTie pen may hi' ntlseil nt the hiesc of I". jlh lL hut 1 [Eid m>\ rriise it 
there, nor da 1 usually. 

The shade In awl Z in placed much the same eg in the preceding three letters. The jwn may be raided at the Use En 
making these, fonna. It won so r sited In the copy. Remember the loop in Q should bp long- and horizontal and in the '/> it 
situ mid be about cm Ute Cumin-ell vc slniiit. The OiiLihi in Un.- / should he below the line, 

TKXttlWCIES AND II()W lt> COitrlECT THEM. The tendencies In these letters nrc to nmku the first stroke of W C, ami 
V too Slanting und too wide or Open at the bose t nnd In the $ and Z, h' mnke rhi- hrri.ill luupa tuo nearly nun id Find l<f use ion 
orach roLllug jn«tion In im- Iowl-i- purl e>f Lin- teHcr. n- raising of the pen, jis suggested w|]| aid In flatt'nonjr Ihr little leaps. 
Hie aid of mare rolling i>r hhoulder action wltl aid En CUTTiflg the first strokes in the fiest forms. l 1 se plenty at the Uinpp Jietion 
In the long dswn stroke of the huek of the J. 

The shaded stroke En Q nod Z is curved www limn in the Tetters of the previous plate. The tendency If to mnke the 
shade mi ]ow OS hi interfere with the construction of the amtvH loops. 

Heed the InJ uiictiun of the hut line. Now is the time to Jc«.rn t not after you have other- thing* to think about. Make that 
hand ni yours nhey your will. It ciin lie t mined to- do utmost nnylhiiig you dictate. Thvt*- is nothing like being master of your 
own power* of express Eoi i. The luiud should rierresiirjly lie the Servant of the mind— It is your duty to make it such. 

40 




4L 



TOO MUCH Ml St I I TKNSION" ANIl HOW TO A VOID IT* Eli writing rln .-.iriiill ItUirs, pu*h Lilt pen along delicately 
yet lirodv. oiruloa* to be dure cif (He form, but nnt ovcr-anxlou^, 1 L Ls fo^ihle to tcrisiini Hie umsidefi too ISjfUlly, which Is tif<ep 
the n*>.il1 of over Jimiiety imd ni-rvoiisncsfl. Keep in tiiiud ll'iut when tlie nimwclc is leufiioued toy lightly it will restrict the motion 
jtiiri muse short* broken Uiirs it nd spasmodic motions. On the i>ther hand, when the muscle is not tension ed properly, the move- 
DWttts nrr im-rtveitnt mid weeik. In lids condition the hand us n idly Keem* lifefe** und hucy. If you arc feeling tired, mcnlnlJy 

ur phy*imlk f the zc\r cmi not 1w made to respond In such n way an In lit- wry ftutfcfyinj?, imlcss you are too easily sothned. 

If the mind ur "Hi Uhp weak tu tra intuit t» Ibe musck ritoufth Athiinlns Uj put it In action and sustain the some, but HtUc 
jirH.nl enn hv accomplished. On the other hnml. If tlic muscle Is too fatlgui-d t<" n^Hmd to (be dictates of the wJH t little impmve- 

nn'iiL mi'H'tl ln» c?([htImI. TlnTb-fiiri- try tu h'H riirhE wlii-n >im p r -id !■.-<■ iincJ ilmi pj-ncl kr i-n re fully, which rtn-nih, tl |2htfi]lly and 

hrlskly, 

THE G££lTAT< STKM. Tit* eotutflJ utero yon will find hi tit; difficult. Tin- curve should be slight in the beginning, bat in the 

letters irm-i. il i- m-ulf .1 ir.lli- ilmrh-r utiri n- eur* hip llmii in tin* f iherij ih-, I .-l thi :11m roll freely i iktiip the large rival. 

l.Jf dolir^e thiit w-lll ivsjuire n Inn^e slewe hikI n iU-sililr itml rhis hie tillkl'Ih- ru-ii t W-.r rltutw. Make your work larger thnn here 
jiivL-n. iH'iirly douhh the si/e. 'J "In- alludes in llm^t 1 tetters .should hti phievd heluu luUf Mm krl^Lit and ucur und on the line. The 
liLi-iurht narl sitnulcl nenrly tmieh the line, 

RNDftAVlHt TO BREAK YOUR OWN RRCOIOJ. The iden noiviyed in tbifi heuiin^ is 11 jjfwjd one. li you will try, eueh 
and every time, to <mtdo your fonntr r iff"«rl, you frill certainly iuipruvc. lint tbnl w ill hr dirtiroll U> 1 i rm-unn 1lud y^o > 'Ln 

[iol fwllin* iTnii-I «ith iiuotlirr in L|u£['k Mim-»«siori for nny k'uiltiidtrubtc k'tijrtli of time witln*tLt beciMnii^r wi-.ir-^l. 'JliHrefufe 

it will hi- ln"-i 1< ii few H-JTufU — llic-n rrst before iryltifr flgain, But do not let the recess he loii^ enough Ur lend t« drowsi- 
ness nor Jjvdlfference. Ht hitt-n-strtl, fnmi I no id tue. If you wont to become * flne penman. 

A TOOK UAt'KWA HO, H^miine your jsmiiH letter? eritkft1ty» soul [f ynu ILml Ihcrii dcfrctivi 1 it yy*>hIlI 1w \imf suvfd in tin- 
r-nd if 1 1 n 1 w-tiuld rt'liirii In Lhe lirs-t JenH«n and reriew them n|] up lo 1 1 1 ■ - orn- lu-rrwitli. ltemeiiiher ymi oujrliE tn '■pcml fram line 
w<rk to otiv 1 1 ii 1 ii C Ii ( fnirit one to three hour-." pr nr liee |irr flay) on ^acli plutc. Ymi fiui not du jiihtiee to onr plnte in u le^on, 
nor to yourself, 

43 



- _ *l r* 




4.1 



CHANGE OF POSITION TtFNRPICIAL AT TIMES. The eapllids Jf, M f S, L t uttd f; are usustlly qultr dHEU-ull. Mwy 
Aiil tm the letters even ilfler li uvhijr Secured u #o«d stem. To overcome 1 1 1 rK seeming difficulty, all you need to do 1? to change 
your position. Tin* I'orenrin umy he held nearly ill rUrht singles In (in 1 liin 1, mi vl- fe- *<■ 1 1 % mi write in tmikirifr UiC item, but III 
rniikinj» the; KeCOfld purt of ^ p A T cir If, the ellmw should be fihovccS to the right, or I he piper twisted xlurhlly to the right at the 
top. flu U.S Icp allow the free u«e of Ihe Vilnir^r mi inn, If ymil will onec form the Iwibit of nn\ttfi Ihls liissjn- m- ■ ■ t-likb- act[at\.. "f 
1ln- flln>w, you will elijm lliexr Il-ILltS. Pupils Imvc been taught to keep 1ln- fnnvi nn piarnllrl wllh the side* of the paper and 
to drive- the ana In ami out thi; sleeve at the elbow in producing theUe forms, ilrhl aft it eonseqiience they usually fallal and 
have thrrefnre usrd * In- nHn-r slylr* nf IttlcrS. 

ELHOW MAY BE ALLOW ED T(> SLIP — IF ARM 111NI>K. In ilnjshinp the style of M hi MusKcr, the clhuw tufty lie allowed 
to slip Allgfctly If It fieCUiA to bind or emmp in the. rder.vc near tlie elbow. Dim't he isciirecl if some our should "yell"' whole-Arid 
movement. Just s« you produce the form. It milteri little whether you raise or rest Lht elbow. So far as capitals are con- 
cerned, I believe thu win iV-ft nil movement an good u any for oriifttueritbl writing. But I do not consider It good for *ma)l 
letters. That Is, v/hri v Mae while arm is used in pnKliieEnji <rtpJ Luis tlirre is a tendency In u<-v Inn mm-li rtnjp'r nt'lion ill the finiq.IL 
LettEK. For experience has; proven Lhat where the firm rests. Ill the elbow for all the IcttiTh, tin- stOLLlI Le tter practice; hus a 
tendency to hyjiteiitatuui the i'j-tpjtfds, and the capital practice has a tendency 1 ■■ ■ im-iln- ilu- small fnirttiii morr fn^ und grnicefutt 

CURVE STEM IN L AND S. If yon will curve the stem of tf and L wet] you will not IniVe Very much SeraoU* tmnlilr. I like 
In rniae tlie pen in tin- /,. I kp Mime ris tlnniprh 1 were poinp Lu mnkc nn S. T\iU, it KeelnS lo me, is unteh fjts]t-r and *iurer. And 
*LireiieHts ik onr nf Hie Nsenlhils - 1 f prufc&ttiunnlLMn. If you eunnot write with reasonable Eurcnesji (whith means to mnkt- nin^ 

L'»t-il h-lti-r . i ip i .mi- ]! ■ •. .: tn ihuIcc :i [food unu whenever jfwii mnke N|i yimr in inI l.» ij-> yrm -if. y.-l n invn U'Httwr—a 

Html C-ht, ii rid ii<>t a pndleient ]Wrtlunt. Surencas is a. very ciisentLni elenn nl 'if ihf l^niUOnHllipL 

St 




MOlJll'IKIJ ] J lt I S t. 'li'LL El^rr m.- hiivi- ii modLfiL-nliua of 11 fiirriii-T principle^ mill- tluit is used quit*' exreu^ivdy. Tlir ztini 
should Ire to keep the principle us fuM Jiml urn nullified fl^ |>«JSk[l!le T The temlctttj is !>► m^c it too tuitthw Jiml torn sharp lit Hie 
tap. The Hurt oval should Lmr: horizontal, or ninrly so. This uvnl should m-ver ilmp twlnw I lis lint; in fncfc, should no! C|uite 
liHtcli it. There I* no ntMMl of rule in this plume of the work. Til u I i*, forms iiwil IkpI Auriform to some one puttcni to hi pretty. 
The chief rtcpiiremertt is thnl ihe letters, a* ji whole, l hunt- well; fltud tin hvjiIs are full nntl the lines well carved; and Hint 
the lines, ore line hihI the shruk-s .smooth. 

The Inst lint- express tin 1 three* cMfeE csssptuih of jui^e wrjLinjr. II \* imf nrt-cAsiLfy to write any partletiljir slnrit, hut it in 
rsM-ntin] that it l>e unlfnnn* So It h with spacing 'there is no misotl why yott sJitinkl U»t write ft marc Compact hunri trmn 
KiTf jrivfii If you prvfiT H-Lft-li ji luintL. The mimic is Inn 1 of n more riilitiinj; * tjt 1 Tin- 'unit* tiring is to m.ike the .style you prelVr 
ItfJiUtlflit. This yo« tnn cio hy em ploy iiijr such element* uf hcmity in lijrhtliCfts anil cnrvnlure of lines bs is, must nni \i -r^ulh 
inLiiii fed. Hut if in eonnecjtioli with these JOII cfln leave the im (tru tS h if ymr own njitnrc thereon, aa much tlic Irctter fur you ;ilul 
for y«or pfQfessfbfll 

ViHj cannot, in fsirt, Jivoid wrilinp unlike rulher |icop]c. That is, your invii rsumtlity will i'khtI ItM-lf even though you fijrlil 
n^,- L i|, h | Ll. Yon hrivr im nu>re vipM in try hip U" hnitfile Siimtlier's |icCuUeir Imum I writing lh«n to inittnt* in manners mid links. 
J ilt- timiuT you diM-over yimr>eir, your own pri!Ul]ar style. I In- ^umiit yon will hi- i-npsidcM-cl n peiunnri, Even llwugh your style is 
im! sin Hne ji.h Minir one eUe">, If it i-. <inpii;il nntl y.nir>. ll ^iil In- eiH>iii(terf it mure fjivorjkMy Ihnn if it Is an iiEiitiitinn, 



Hi 




4T 



JlODlFlKli STKMS. The furuis. on Lhi- ]i>|si1-- a re nolhhie other tlw ^lifted s-teliML; the shade licing the sami-, The large 

iriiiin] i.™! -Iim-.iM In nha jri»oii(nl. II hIwijLeI never Ik- higher Jit tin- left end thrui at thr r\ K h\, Tlie nnn must mil frwly 

near Hie elbow in starting this I*™, bot the pa^r tod pen Wt be adjusted sn ns to produce gmnulli nIhk1l-». Tf ymi find thr 
hliHtlc rouph «m Hip sutler -.hie U «ill he beroudc uT ft poor position or -in iJii|irc]n-pl y iKljustrd Imhler. 'Ha- tlmrfM nf the tuxvmi 
llyl* n f p. b and fi ntttlt be mad* I™ rapidly Uian the other nhades. 'Jlw tendency Is to make tiie shflde so low and abrupt a* 
li> interfere with a nice d (-Haute turn jit the base of the first part of the tetter. Keep the shade high In C and & Herd the In- 
junction contained In the last line. It is only through repeated Attempt* that & fine bimiln -riling Is poulble, 

TIARIT.S THAT AFFECT WHITING- If, in ymir pr:ieliee from these lessons, your work heoiiis weak* nervous, stiff or 
IrregnJar, the brst thing to do U to go hack to csercittrs and principles Vigorous drill f* tlw key lo mastery. A few attempt 
iv-JI] pmdk hiit lit Ik. Kuril fitful practice la a mere imgni vat ion— enough, perhaps to encourage. Therefore, unless yvn are will- 
ing t<J work i«ir<J. fa i Hi fully And lung you iu'etl mil e*|>cot (<i hfcome much of a penman. For it takes time to tram to write a 
thoroughly prnfeKsitMiiil houd. In fact, jolt ttm&t grow Into It— in |mrt, at lefts*. . And while you ore growing and training it will 
help Millies along Financially* healthfully, rtttd morally if you do BW4V wi1h -rnokhip, drinking U-»i and coffee, and irregular rut- 
hig iiiid sleeping., 

Sonie Vrftrs ago 1 ceased Such Of these habits ais t had eon traded, for fear that they might influence my work, and I im 
jrlntj iti i[. ] kiipw I hat they cuMld (41 ltd ij\\Uv likely would) in ihu'nec rn > work hi such a way Hint it would he difficult In 
attribute a little CnrVOUttt^H or Irregularity to thesje stimulant- ; L ken: fore, to be sure about It, J quit using them. I would 

recommend the same to you. After i* <-n<> >•■■.! r-" m" ilr-K >y k«i jiiiiir it.iik't Ikhips -linI i-nlinjr wlhih-ximr I' I. I lim! 

\n\ btvillli i:iueh Wtter llian u-|ien I hegfln. Is ttti* not well wortli euiifcklr?lnK? 



1^ 




*3 



I\\ I I 1 1 FI LLY, liN T J 1 ( fS T A STIC A LL Y, EIGOROUSLY, Tl^ *-4i|>HkJ «^t^ 'herewith ^herald he prnrtkcA faithfully. 
enthLUfiR^Mcnllv jnnt Hpurou.siy. |) H , n tit rmuae much along the way, ltnlM' (lie pYn III (Tolng from one .-f In a neither, but yoti need 

not ebexk tli* rm^lDO, Mukr the stems of the JJV firtU, then finish frmii rijfhl En left. The msy t»r nuide nmlin sly wtth- 

aul ruling Dm pen, or you amy It after the slmde, u tiki the w rid r. 

H liai is true of the fr j.k a bo true of the &. flnise the pen In .1/ and N t hut tin nut plnee Hie pen on the shade of the first 
Hurl HtiirMnjr the seeond, hut nenr to it Instead. Suit yuurseJl rihtiut ttiWmg the pi-n in q. The IF Srf Mrnllur to the y ami .1/. 

One of tli«c uiEiin faults with beginners is lo hurry the nation ton much in gotng from one form tn another, Thus En th* 
.IV there is no twed of hurry in niAkFlijJf tile Tnlerrtl oval :tnd joining lite fidlnwmg form. Otitis are frequently flattened m this 

haste of jntutn^ Siariply Ivl the arm ineinU'* Vfll.li freedom ami cnw on the si]c nenr the HbrW. Fndenvor to secure fulliu-hs 

of ovnl ratlcr than fsstnes* «f motion. For betuty should he your aim. Speed* In thin line of work. Is or Mceoartn ry" importance. 
tJf COUT>e yuu iiiu.hE have enough fnrec 11 rut momefftUTD to secure furini-iis (irn'1 & rn i-i' fill in- ^ <jf form* hut it in IWdMl hi Unvi; 
uiiieh of it as to destroy Wirst: deslri-d f|nnlitirv 

Tt> seeure jtra^e, deliency, MiJiiutlinesvS tirrrMie\«. ;uul Mreii^lli, you initsl ys.^i it-eUin speed and Tnomentnm, If you drop 
hefaw or go beyond this desired ratr inf lautiun you will falE in ^eeuriiifj nil I hew e.sM 1 ] 1 1 in I rpjalilii^. You mast ■ i i i riii 1 1 1 »-l E 1 • vnilr 
Inclinations lo the pwsiMUly of the work to be dono> Forms like thuse herewith demand a certain rhte of kjmnmI imel it is folly y„ 
cndenYflr tc« jrO beyond their limit. If yon lire naturally nervous you will |t««HMI? liy write faster than those of steady nerves ntid 
delibr-r/il 1 ttHH-rjoeril. " i 

I 



,5il 



C'A PITALS. I'apitnk! What fund memories the word recnUs ! Hon well do [ tall to mini! llsi- aiimnol iff i-rijoymcnt and 
iii^pir-uUnci I do rived from some "iv hole-arm capitals' 1 in the hack i> f n, copy-book ji quarter of n e.etdury ago. If Hit- form- 
herewith were to mvnken ft* much enthusiasm on thr purl of Hie renders a* simikir ones hnvc hi me in the past, I >hfsuhl envy 
their delijrhL Por I collider tin.- mm ncnts spent in the ficnjuirenieut +if tlie*e fnmis (and Lhey took :t decade) nranUiu: the happiest 
of my life, hut n large port km r» I' Unit delight has gone forever* never to return save nt hrlndding some- masterpiece in paint- 
ing or in tryjnjf to drnw sirninlhirijj; which seems just beyond my present |i<iwrr>. hut which I hope to attain. Surely iL there Is 
nun- pleasure in pursuit than in iwssesaion," but tlicrc U mure sei lis faction in hnvlng tt than hnviiig it to get. Therefore, mjny tin- 
pleasure of aesfliirmg* find then the satisfaction which roiiies only by possession. 

CONCEPTION, COXPIDKNCti and PRACTICE— TUltKK KSSKXTIA1.& Ant you want lit know how to make « set ?d 
capitals Well, thff IItsI rexpilslte is a knowltMl^e af form, Tlic next -and nmsl important rssentlal is skill, which cymes only hi 
proper efFart repented ahmit a million times. Another very^good tiling to hn\i\ and it amies liest by experience, ^ crmfldrnee. 
Nut necessarily Hint kind which chuscs the hend to swell, but rather that which is the result of Inuiest effort and service, 1 have 
heard some say that to be able to niuke a good set of capitals you must make, a half d"Hcn sets daily. No iloubl Hml is n. pond 
wny In learn." hut there tire other whys. Practice cm each letter until you can make It well arty time of day without preliminary _ 
practice, Then you ean make n set of capitals wilh lint little additional prEietice^ 

SlNGLK I.KTTKltS PI It ST— KILL AI<PHABPjT APTPlt. So long as yon arc not reasonably sure of the product he fore the 
ink leaves tile |>en you nct'd not expi-ct In experience a "howling" success ill gel ting up scU of en pit ct Is. As ln.HIjf its yon make 
lis runny misses as hits don't spend time on the alpha hut. Spend \i rm individual letters, hut, if yon Ihirik you can mnki- Iclter- 
hr'lter than ntlicr p;-ir|jLr lllilik vmi cll ri, make .1 w\ ttf rnpitak. thru ftit eotily down and I rink "I each letter critically and Sire if 
y.Mi would he willing l*i l«pv «■ the fnntrrst mn- nf the l>>E shtvc :m jniLJiil in: ri pennuinshin .pinrmd. IT not, \vt,rk at ^in-li letter ur 
letters until y<ui would, 

RELATION OP WIU>M^ NOT INDIVIDUAL FORM, DETER MINKS EPKKCT. But the appearance of II ic alphabet, a Iter 
all, is not dependent so much upon the form of individual letters as upon the relationship ns u whole. All forms should he ahmit 
CCjLially distHllt. n]id tire shndes urii t'omi in wfijrht. 

TI IP MOVHiMF.ST FOM CAPITAL, Tin' movenuut shuiild Colin' ehiellj from Hie upper flhii rind shouhicr. The power Shou Id 
ennie fn:»ni the sllnlllder. The coidf"! ^brmld conic frmti renting the fureanii nn thL' tJihle r The niuselo rie?Lr the el how should 
M>rve ns ri rnhiKT-like rt-hl. hnt Ibev must not he rigid. Idttle ci r no flnjeer Action should Ijc nie^l except to grip the holder mure 
lightly in producing shade*:. 0 

52 




■ ' V 

■ 



.73 



Tlu- Standard alpiuihet above and the one on t)w fofiowii]^ page are two of a Rerks of envuiata hv K A I upfar 
mstrucltir in thr /.unrrfan College of Penmntutiip, CulumlniJi, U, iv hi i;h appeared in I Ik: Husiiu^ KihiVutur iiubiislirci 
Nt t .oJiimliijs, t)hitK Minl*-n(s of p*nmnriilup can find m better material fop study and imitation. 









-J — - 



- — -^ff 








The fmir |>m'i-ilirifr j»]U^ wi-rr |»r« ]3 jinc| liy i:. A. LnjifW, in^tnt-tur in I \w ZrtiiL'riuii Co I J rue of l'etimiiri.4lii|i, CuliHiibuj*, O. 



fin 



7s? j- 



WD- 






The Kpucimen on this page and the urn; m, Hi r following pj^r nrr J' rum Hir T hti i:. \> Kupfer. Instructor 
hi the /.(iiLurijin C<rtlcpr of TVitmflnship, Col unions Ohio. 



til 




By E. A. Lupfcr, Principal of Za net-inn C^Ud^ Columbus, Ohio. 

6$ 




\\\ J.. A. l.nplVr, /jLitirjiiu reillrjfc (if Pt»ltliiUiistii|H Col LltiibllN, Ohio. 

t, I 




Written by K. A. J.upfcr. 
fir, 




By F. B. Cnurlnry, l>vtr*»ir. Midi. 
67 



/ 



/ 



1" f- 




The above Is one of tlw many fine spedmrny which appear in The Maduras* Book, Published by Zaner & Bloier 
Company, Columbus, Ohio, 

TO 



FINE ART PRKMANSHIP Al'PMKD TO LETTER WRITING 

By A. D, TAYLOH 



Whose pernio ns hip m point of accuracy, grace, delicacy, JtrciHtHi cijiJ luintumy nil combmcd, we. have never swli equaled. 
Mr. Taylnr whs truly n genius, in fusing in In the art of penmanship a rcrtnrni.nl it never knew l»efure bo lived. 

The letter presented in pages T2 and 73 Is Oil* Of the best. The delicacy of the n rip inn! was *iu-li that im pnuvM. of rn- 
gtaving and printing can fa it Justice. The method employed is photographically correct, but the screen Increases the Ihiektiev* 
of the line and roughens It not u little 

Study i!- n rr^n^incnt, Its effect, It* uniformity in height and slant* its grace and harmony, and Its hnlducss as well. 
Not iee critically the initial And h'nal strokes, him dnintElv they are curved, ami how harmonious rmd uniform in slunt. ( iWrvt? 
ai^i llic perfect sparing hi hewn words. 

Sfi' wlmt >b>4Uli'r, graceful, full, fri:e jiihI syuuiu't ritol loops lutvr been pnulm-ed. And Mieh exactness and daintiness in 
f > is remarkable. The skill required for such precision and freedom fa second to that of no other. We are delighted to be 
fortunate enough to pre-hl .mil V n--.<rvv il in MiK honk. 



Tl 



We now come lu tigtature writing, combinations as they are frequently colled. Tlih, work b irsnulK i viderrd lln- most 

frwinatipfr pari "f fii'Mri:an>.l.ip. H i* n kind of work, Em.,' thai one to display mure cirigiiiuljLy llimi nnliim rv |uipr 

v riling. 

The essentials of nood ^imtnre writing ore much the same n^ ttmse which underlie ulhvr uriinmmtul iiennionshlp. Haw- 
ner, M U well lure- lo emphasise the fiut thai Hie leltirs should <i.s l rule appear to be equal in size untl spaclti^. Vrry 
tr>i|[?entlv eopitalft lire spaced Irregularly by amateurs, who become interested in the i idmiglcment of lines rather than in their 
right relation. 

An old rule for nrmile eomhlmilhmrt. flourishes. e|e,. i> Hint lines should run nearly |»arnllrl or Ihol they should irniss nl 
licit rly right angles. Good (denatures comply witJr this rule, ami pm»r n ■ viulnti- il. 

A good combination does not necessarily mean that rill of \ he h ltm-i should k- joined, I ml nether tluil they overlap each 
iifhtr iti Midi a wrty that I hey Imve the appearance, of joining, 

Another essentia] in signature designs is that lite capital* ^lumld form a symmetrical combination or eflVcL That is one 
side of fin' it;iroe should np|iear to he about as large a* the other side. 

A harmoniums signature. M s rt rule, h not the prodiirt t>f hasty thought and aelinn. nor ks a rule tlie rcnuH of even one, two nr 
lliree efforts. It is really neees^, 1 1 y mmel iiiirr? to word upon . it 1 11 in < imioinatinns of letters for months before the be,st efforts can 
he Dec Li red. 

Each en pi la L to p liigh-jjriidt ihimilion, Mtoiild. If *horn of or separated from ft* flourishes, he n well>fnmied t rtniulard. 

.mnrale, plain letter; good in proportion nod syrnitirtrie.il in outline, mid an r'nl, 

tt K not a good plan to luivf two .ir lliree shades dose together and Humi unc or twn ■ p fT by tlieri^elvi-.. Shades om^ld hi 
lie about I be Kaiin in Hdi-km-^s mid sjunvil nearly li- fios-dhle the s.une tlUtnni.'e afuirt. Of coiiriie t nbHOl Lite ri[iia I tty Is Jlot desired, 
|mt it thi'ti luis il teiuleni'y tip /Lpjieiir tnn inei'lui ideal* exat't mid lifele.ss, 

(irimuienUtl |Kumiinshi|i hehni|:s tu tbc domain of fine arts, being UuuHrtd ftifatt thmi aseltil. Ft is not as hfgh an art i* 

pointing sculpture, nrehiteeturr, imiale or pnetrv, lne.niM it Is less complex, bnl IL is more fnitdnn lal and simple nnd tint is 

why it K si. widely appreeiJilef] and admired. Being praerfiil in form and rhythinEe in action. H belongs tn fine ruther than 
meelmniciil :trt5. 

To those who worship devoutly at the ^irlni' nf henuly lu ornate ja'Ttirianhhip, there wilt eimie eertnin ^elinatluiis thai only 
tin' |Mith-nt and |wrsevering and art-loving ean folly appreciate nr.d enjoy. 

ftjj 





Curcl?. by lv A. Lupfrr, Zutlrrinri CoUegft Coin nihil** Ohio. 

8 I 




THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

M"MIIS Ur-i>k wnnld nut hr irnmplrlr If il mrilalncd ntt 
I r«-f> rtittt to Thf Tln*in<v*n ICdnrxiar. tti* monthly 

pfcunnnnHHi jnmrnnl fiahllnhird h«r /nUrr 4w HI"-' r 
LVimpafljr. 

Thf- publUbf-r* -timri- ntilhrr I'FTort nitr njifHkr In [J-r*- 

wnt fram month <u month the b*sl that Iht A#ld of p*n- 
maniihip ^ffdnlx. 

The bent Inlrnl (m pwtui-ed In rohlrtbulr IcjjttihJi In p*n- 

marmhip. pn|irn**iTi|{. r|f„ Bpwfmfn* af pr-innnniiJiip ariiil*-», 
tir. 

Rnrh ntnnlh Mi'i'imrn* arc published from aattrrw 

[in>[ ninl |hmrni . Thrrr in n -»lud*nlh" italic, ^Ipri*-*, anil 

hue!** *iton» Invaluable t«i b«ith *1ndriils niiri pn?fc<iNtonnl 
[M'liin r n . 

Subscription prtrr $1M a yttt, Canadian pnsioirr Ittej 

fnrrien pnnLaxr. 2fjc + 

I If rrjurn-. all whn art Intcrrntril iti |>rnninn«hip ninl 
reran errijil rduralinn -iliirulii mh Merita" for Th* JJqim-r** 
Ediralor. 



The Business Educator 

Zaner Sc B!tnt?r Company. Publishers 
Columbus, Ohio. 



Revised Edition of 

The Madarasz Book 

R-^xlIM inches, 80 pagfes^ Con- 
tains tin* finest vvr>rk of tht* famous 
L. Aladarasz, who, as an ornamen- 
tal writer, ranked as one of the 
tini -i v. ho ever lived. 

It is a wonderful book of pen- 
manship inspiration for pro- 
fessionals and he pinners. 

A good book to study after prac- 
ticing from "Lessons in Ornamen- 
tal Penmanship," 

BfdVjl /'nj'tr Ctn>pr. ftijS&J Clntb, 

Zanes & Bloser Company 



Penmanship Publisher* 



Columbus, Ohio 



WHY YOU SHOULD TRAIN IN THE 

ZANERIAN COLLEGE OF PENMANSHIP 

Htvtm** you ^viJI gW Uk* latest nntl he*t Instruction; the mo&t successful methods; the in«wt inspiring 
]Hfliii]iili£hip ftjpir-.; pujnstnk'llg criMi-Mus inn! lirlpflll s u g gi-$l Sons ■ t-HiH? in eohtncl with 1 lu- Ist'fit in I hi- pro- 
fession; hr KurniTindcd with u decidedly pcnmnusltip iiltuotphrrr,, and our ip f the lineal collections of pen- 
iriFitiship iit Ihifi country 3 he treated fftirly, courteously and helpful. 

fircfitttc the /.nticrinn i* the home of the Znncr Method of Writing, and superintendents find school officials 
eoixLO to ii s ivr supervisor* and special teachers of writing, Persons who urc &ht*tI:ui-i rnlnril urr thcrefure 
In tlfuiinul. \Yi- rln-erfiilly n ur |iupil> in sciiiring petitions tree tif charge. 

Write far LittTatun 





OLUMBU5 

^5 *- * = 




Headquarters for Good P^mansWp,|^d7Home of Zanei*Mdhod Writing 



n 



A Professional Certificate 



\n> unt- practicing from these Ictsuns, wlwi nt- 
tmn* Midi prolleteney ;h is r\ peeled uf Mhki* who 
aspire lo ht professiiuiaU. will lie grunted a hemiUful 
Certificate: for one dollar. This is :in opportunity 
worth ninny tinlltirs atn\ should he grasped hy nil 
ILintliluHIK prtitnatt&lilp stud fnts, 

'Jo M-t-uri- tlii-. tirlHlriid- Mild Ji specimen uf 
vmir |HTiciuiuship+ t'lin^i^tiri^ uf mi alphabet and fi 
page letter. If Ihr wiirk shows sufficient fikill you 
will he notified. Vou con then remit the dollar fur 
the ccrtiFie?itc> 

Wc issue a Studi-nTti Ornamental Ccrtifie»L, 
prtoe 50c. 



ZANER & BLOSER CO. 

Columbus Ohio 



ALL PERSONS 



Pus*evdnp nnd priicMririi; r'r.im "L>#*i<h* in <*ttruHH-ii- 
fttt t*t>nutftti*hi}i" ought to ftUiv fMi-,M tin.- en- 
titled ' '/MurtUiH Script JfhfuthrOT na it is Intended 
fnr advanced student*, amateurs and professionals, 
ft contains one hundred and j*i\lern pa^i>. nine by 
twelve ineliefi In ske, doth landing and \< prinlcil on 
extra super paper w ; Mi ilunMe-lime sepia ink. It 
contain* some three do&eri alphabets with instruc- 
tions, Find the finest work from sueh master penmen 
rts Mndarasz, Taylor, SpHieer. Kliekuitfer, t'unrlllcy. 
Doner, Kkraer, Mills Canan and others. The regular 
price js l»n1 I" [iiiri'k'i^i'r- of lids k»ik we .ir,- 

pleased to qtiOto a special price nt' lint pre- 
paid If you meuthin at l!« time yuu po^m-ss .1 eupt 
of M Lessons in Ornamental Pcnimiiudiip" and give. 
I he dote of purvb using It 



ZANER & BLOSER CO. 

PUBLISHERS COLUMBUS, OHIO